Health & Wellness

Natural Hawaiian Astaxanthin – FAQ’s


Astaxanthin is a powerful, naturally occurring carotenoid pigment that’s found in certain marine plants and animals. Often called “the king of the carotenoids,” astaxanthin is recognized as being one of the most powerful antioxidants found in nature. It is of significance, because unlike some other types of antioxidants, astaxanthin never becomes a pro-oxidant in the body so it can never cause harmful oxidation.


Astaxanthin is an antioxidant, so it naturally reduces free radicals in the body. But besides that, it also significantly reduces the oxidative load in the body by protecting the cells against oxidation. Because of astaxanthin’s unique molecular structure, this red-colored pigment is an extremely powerful antioxidant that is very effective against singlet oxygen. It has a powerful scavenging ability for lipid and free radicals, and effectively breaks peroxide chain reactions.
While astaxanthin was initially introduced as a “super antioxidant,” it has also been found to benefit a number of bodily functions, including:
Eye Health – The structure of astaxanthin is similar to lutein and zeaxanthin, two antioxidants that have been shown to reduce the risk of nuclear cataracts. But, while similar, astaxanthin has a stronger antioxidant activity and UV-light protection effect, both of which point to it being an excellent supplement for eye health maintenance.
Skin Health – Astaxanthin has been shown to help improve skin moisture levels, elasticity, and smoothness while reducing wrinkles, freckles, and spots.
Astaxanthin’s antioxidant properties have also been shown to help improve heart heath, cellular health, and the body’s immune system.


Astaxanthin is found in its highest natural concentration in wild Pacific sockeye salmon. It is also found in krill, algae, red trout, shrimp, crab, and lobster. Its vibrant red pigmentation is what helps give these marine animals and plants their intense coloring.


Astaxanthin supplements offer easy access to the most protective antioxidant in the world. This super-antioxidant is capable of protecting the central nervous system, the brain, the eyes, and more. In fact, natural astaxanthin is one of the only antioxidants that is capable of protecting the entire cell – both the water-soluble part as well as the fat-soluble part. It can travel throughout the entire body and protect cells in all our organs, muscles and tissues.


While astaxanthin is found naturally in the wild in the form of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, the astaxanthin that is used to make Nutrex Hawaii’s BioAstin capsules is extracted from hygienically grown microalgae harvested on the pristine Kona Coast of Hawaii’s Big Island.
Sourcing location plays a large role in the quality of astaxanthin, and Hawaii’s Kona coast offers optimum growing conditions, thanks to its pristine, nutrient-rich waters, heavenly climate, and 12 months of generous sunlight. This trio of environmental factors enables the astaxanthin that is used in BioAstin to be of the highest quality and potency possible.
Our production of microalgae farm in Hawaii is considered a BioSecure Zone. This means that it is completely free of harmful pesticides, herbicides, and genetically modified organisms.


If you are taking an astaxanthin nutritional supplement as a general part of your daily health maintenance regimen, then 4 to 6 mg of BioAstin per day is recommended. However, if you are taking astaxanthin for serious joint or tendon health problems, or if you’re an athlete or someone who does a lot of physical work or exercise, then 12 mg per day is generally recommended. It is important to note that since astaxanthin is a fat-soluble carotenoid, it works best when taking it with food, as fat aids in the absorption of the antioxidant.


There are several different ways to incorporate more astaxanthin into one’s diet, such as eating foods that are naturally rich in the antioxidant, like salmon. But even though salmon has the highest concentration of any food, you’d have to eat over a pound each day of most salmon species to get the equivalent amount of Astaxanthin in one 4 mg capsule! 


Astaxanthin has been around a long, long time, but it has only recently begun to be recognized as the super-antioxidant that it really is. This reddish-colored pigment is produced by microalgae, and ingested by several different forms of marine life, including salmon, lobster, shrimp, and other red-hued organisms.
Often called “the king of the carotenoids,” astaxanthin is 10 to 100 times more powerful than other carotenoids like beta-carotene and lycopene. Plus, unlike several other antioxidants, astaxanthin does not become pro-oxidant in the body. This makes it one of the most potent and powerfully effective antioxidants that one can ingest. The following list represents just a few examples of how astaxanthin positively affects the body, and benefits one’s health.


Astaxanthin has natural anti-inflammatory properties, but unlike prescription analgesics, it comes with no risk of addiction, heartburn, or gastrointestinal ulcers. Specifically, natural forms of astaxanthin block inflammatory COX2 enzymes, while at the same time suppressing serum levels of nitric oxide, interleukin 1B, prostaglandin E2, C Reactive Protein (CRP), and TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha).


One of the reasons why salmon roe is red in color has to do with the high levels of astaxanthin that it contains. Astaxanthin has powerful UV-blocking properties that help protect the fish eggs from sun-related damage. Taking astaxanthin can also provide humans with similar health benefits. As a side benefit, the antioxidant has also been shown to reduce wrinkles, and to improve skin moisture levels.


Sockeye salmon has some of the highest levels of astaxanthin found in nature, with the exception of the purest form of the pigment. In fact, this is the reason behind the vibrant red flesh of the fish. Astaxanthin is also considered the primary reason why salmon have the energy it takes to make their arduous upstream voyages each year. Natural forms of this antioxidant also provide humans with increased strength, while also offering increased recovery from exercise.


One of the easiest ways to take advantage of the remarkable health benefits of astaxanthin is to take BioAstin from Nutrex Hawaii. Not only does this super-antioxidant benefit one’s joints and tendons, eyes, skin, and energy levels, but astaxanthin also:

• Supports immune function
• Supports cardiovascular health
• Protects cells and the nervous system from oxidative damage
• Supports brain health


By Bob Capelli and Gerald R. Cysewski, PhD

Q: Which of the following can “Hawaiian Astaxanthin OX Nature” do for athletes?

A. Make them stronger
B. Give them better stamina
C. Enable them to recover faster
D. Help joint and muscle soreness after exercise
E. Plain and simple, make them better athletes

The answer to this question is “all of the above.” There is plenty of anec¬dotal evidence as well as several human clinical studies in these areas.

To put it simply, “Hawaiian Astaxanthin OX Nature” can make you a better athlete. World class triathletes like Honolulu’s Tim Marr swear by it. And elite marathon runners like Jonathan Lyau (who was Hawaii’s first place finisher for many years straight in the Honolulu Marathon) also love it. The active ingredient in “Hawaiian Astaxanthin OX Nature” has been documented in many human clinical trials to support athletes in a variety of different ways. A wonderful human clinical trial on Natural Astaxanthin in 2011 was funded by Gatorade Sports Science Institute. For this study, Gatorade used competitive cyclists, sup-plementing them with a placebo or 4mg of Natural Astaxanthin each day for four weeks. From the endurance athlete’s—or for that matter—from any competitive athlete’s perspective, the results were excellent: In a 20 kilometer (about 12.5 mile) cycling time trial, the performance of the subjects taking Astaxanthin sig¬nificantly improved, while the subjects taking placebo showed no improvement. In fact, the group using Natural Astaxanthin became over 5% faster in just four weeks! Also, the cyclists tak¬ing Astaxanthin demonstrat¬ed significant improvement in their power output (Earnest, et al, 2011).

Other research very relevant to athletes shows that Natural Astaxanthin may:

• Prevent joint and muscle soreness after exercise. An excellent study done at University of Memphis showed benefits in this area back way back in 2001 (Fry, A, 2001).
• Decrease lactic acid levels in the muscles by an average of 28.6% after mid-distance running (Sawaki, et al, 2002).
• Provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant protection to the energy-producing part of our cells—the mitochondria (Kuroki, et al, 2013).
• Reduce damage to cell membranes and DNA (Aoi, et al, 2003).
• Increase time to exhaustion during heavy exercise (Aoi, et al, 2008).
• Protect the skin from UV damage and sunburn—from the inside out. Very important for long-distance runners who train in the sun. (Lorenz, T., 2002).


Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant classified as a carotenoid, which include organic pigments found in a variety of species of plants, algae, animals, bacteria and fungi. At its essence, Astaxanthin serves as one of the most powerful antioxidants that can be absorbed by the human body. It is beneficial in relieving oxidative stress throughout the body, while also aiding in recovery time following exercise. Even with a basic idea of what Astaxanthin is, it’s important to understand exactly how Astaxanthin works in the body.


The body is reliant on antioxidants to deliver healthful balance, and healing power to damaged cellular structures. Simply defined, antioxidants fight the process of oxidation, which leads to cellular breakdown over time.

Antioxidants sacrifice their structure to repair free radical development, slowing and potentially healing the process of oxidation, thus allowing for stabilized health at the cellular level. Healthy cellular function equates to better overall health, and is a prerequisite for reaching optimal health and peak physical performance.

Astaxanthin is a unique antioxidant, as it is bioavailable throughout the body. The skin, muscles, ligaments, tendons, eyes, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and internal organs are all receptive of Astaxanthin. These soft tissues appreciate, and are able to perform better, due to the presence of the active antioxidant power of Astaxanthin.


When compared to other antioxidants, Astaxanthin is quite potent. Common antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin A, C, and E, possess far less antioxidant power than Astaxanthin, when applied to human physiology. The Nutrex Hawaii BioAstin Hawaiian Astaxanthin possesses 550 times the antioxidant power of vitamin E; 6,000 times the power of vitamin C; and 800 times the power of the popular super-antioxidant, Co-enzyme Q10. When adding a supplemental health agent such as Astaxanthin to a daily diet and a routine exercise regimen, the health benefits can be enjoyed throughout the body.


Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid, and is evident in animals that feed off of, and are prone to, environments high in Astaxanthin production. For example, it is Astaxanthin that gives salmon its brightly colored meat, and also gives shellfish their bright pink or red color when cooked. Flamingos also feed off marine life with carotenoids, which their bodies then convert to Astaxanthin, giving them their signature pink color. Flamingos are the only animal with this ability to convert other carotenoids into astaxanthin in their bodies.

While there are no known issues of toxicity when supplementing with the GRAS recommended dosage of Astaxanthin, a couple of harmless effects have been noted. Those who have exceeded recommended dosage have reported slight changes in pigment, resulting in a rosy or orange tint. However, Astaxanthin is also noted as an asset to fighting the oxidative stress associated with UV rays.


Astaxanthin has grown in popularity as more individuals seek superfoods and supernutrients to aid in overall health, and optimal physical performance. There are many questions about this carotenoid-classified antioxidant, including some about the potential benefits of daily Astaxanthin supplementation. However, before considering potential benefits of any dietary supplement, it is always wise to consider any potential side effects. To determine its worth, consider a frequently asked question: is Astaxanthin safe?

Many people have been exposed to, or have ingested some form of astaxanthin without even realizing it. Astaxanthin is common in marine environments, and plays a significant role in the diets of many animals. For example, the bright pink color and vivid skin of salmon is attributed to the ingestion of Astaxanthin. Another example: the well-known flamingo is born a white bird with gray plumage, but their color will change based on diet. A diet rich in carotenoid algae and sea life such as brine shrimp or prawns (which feed on algae) will offer flamingos vivid pink or bright orange plumage.
In nature, Astaxanthin results in physical characteristics such as bright and colored pigmentation. In the human body, Astaxanthin serves as a powerful antioxidant that is similar in some ways to the well-known beta-carotene. When addressing the question, “Is Astaxanthin safe?” The answer, in a word, is yes. There are no known side effects, contraindications or issues of toxicity from supplementing this potent antioxidant. Its healthful benefits provide reduced oxidative stress throughout the soft tissues of the body. Like beta-carotene, Astaxanthin is an excellent antioxidant for maintaining optimal eye health, as well as healthy skin, joints, and internal organs.


Astaxanthin is a deep red, fat-soluble pigment that is found widely throughout nature. As one of the world’s most powerful carotenoids, astaxanthin is considered a super-antioxidant; it is ten to twenty times more powerful than many other carotenoids, including beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, and a hundred-times more powerful than alpha-tocopherol.


There are several natural sources of astaxanthin available right in your own grocery store. Adding certain types of proteins that are rich in this pigment will help you increase your intake of this beneficial antioxidant. Proteins that are high in astaxanthin include sockeye salmon, red trout, red seabream, lobster, shrimp, crawfish, crabs, and salmon roe.
In the animal kingdom, Astaxanthin is found in its highest concentration in Wild Pacific sockeye salmon. It is also found in krill, algae, red trout, shrimp, crab and lobster. Wild-caught Pacific sockeye salmon, for example, has 400% higher levels of astaxanthin than their farm-raised counterparts. The reason for this is that marine life in the wild ingests the truest form of the pigment, microalgae, whereas farm-raised fish get their astaxanthin resources through commercially made food additives containing synthetic astaxanthin which is made from petrochemicals. That’s right – the same thing you put into your car’s crankcase. Synthetic astaxanthin is completely different chemically than natural astaxanthin, and has been shown to be 20X – 50X weaker in antioxidant strength! So, if you buy salmon, make sure you always buy the wild salmon, even though it costs more. You’ll be doing your body a big favor. 


Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, also known as Phaffia, is a species of yeast that, like microalgae, is a natural producer of astaxanthin. Therefore, it has naturally very high levels of the carotenoid. This natural source of the antioxidant is most commonly used in commercial sector applications, rather than human consumption.


The astaxanthin that is used to make our capsules comes from microalge grown in controlled fresh water ponds in a BioSecure Zone that’s free from pesticides and other genetically modified organisms. High pressure CO2 extraction is used to extract the Astaxanthin from the algae which is then turned into nutritional supplements.


Astaxanthin is a red pigment found in a wide variety of natural organisms. It is similar to chlorophyll, which is found in green plants and vegetables, and beta-carotene, which is found in orange plants and vegetables. Plants and animals that exhibit intense red coloring tend to be very high in astaxanthin, which is itself the world’s most powerful carotenoids.


Unlike chlorophyll and beta-carotene, which are both found in terrestrial plants, astaxanthin is found predominantly in marine life. A form of microalgae, astaxanthin is consumed by many different types of aquatic life, and its intense red pigmentation results in these animals having red or pink flesh, or outer shells.

Because of this, one of the highest concentrations of astaxanthin, other than H. pluvialis (the truest form of the microalgae and what fish eat), is found in Wild Pacific sockeye salmon. This pigment is what gives the fish’s flesh its signature deep red hue, and incredible health-benefitting antioxidant properties. Other natural sources of astaxanthin include lobster, arctic shrimp, crab, crawfish, red trout, algae, and krill. Red-colored birds often get their coloring by eating fish and plants that are high in astaxanthin, but they do not typically have a high concentration of the pigment in their bodies.

It is interesting to note that in some cases, commercial fisheries add sythetically-produced astaxanthin to their fish feed, in order to help give their fish the same appearance as fish caught in the wild. This synthetic astaxanthin is produced from petrochemicals – the same things you put into the crankcase of your car. It is completely different chemically than natural astaxanthin and has been shown to be 20X to 50X weaker as an antioxidant than its natural cousin.


While marine life is where astaxanthin is most commonly found, it is not restricted to water-based plants and animals. For example, a species of yeast called Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (also known as Phaffia) also contains relatively high levels of astaxanthin. Like the microalgae form of the pigment, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a producer of astaxanthin; it does not absorb it from other organic sources.


Not all astaxanthin is naturally occurring. Synthetically produced astaxanthin is produced in laboratories where it is derived from petrochemicals. This form is vastly inferior to natural astaxanthin and is potentially unsafe. Also, astaxanthin from genetically mutated yeast known as Phaffia has not established sufficient safety standards and is thus not allowed by the US FDA for human consumption above 2mg per day and is not recommended for long-term use or for children. The only form of astaxanthin that has hundreds of medical research experiments showing health benefits as well as extensive safety trials and fifteen years of safe use in humans is astaxanthin from microalgae.


Synthetic astaxanthin is produced in laboratories and extracted from petrochemicals. This form is much inferior than natural astaxanthin and is potentially unsafe. Recent studies point to synthetic astaxanthin as toxic and carcinogenic.


The sources of astaxanthin that are found in nature are not where the highest concentrations of this antioxidant come from, in terms of human consumption. While humans can enjoy the health benefits of astaxanthin by eating plenty of salmon, algae, and shellfish, the greatest concentration for humans comes in the form of all-natural astaxanthin supplements, like Hawaiian Astaxanthin OX Nature.


Antonio Marcos, is a university professor and writer on holistic health. He is the founder, professor and president of the Portuguese Institute of Naturology and directs a group of clinics – Dr. Marcos blood Diet Clinic – where he implements his own holistic approach to Natural Medicine based on the genetics of our ancestors.

By Prof. António Marcos – Specialist in Orthomolecular Nutrition.

When, in 2011, while reading an article that caught my attention a quote in a reference to a recent article published in the English newspaper “The Daily Mail”, which said that actress Gwyneth Paltrow and supermodel Heidi Klum used a newly discovered supplement to eliminate wrinkles and maintain the elasticity of the skin, I started a research paper to be able to judge it for myself, about the truth or not of this miracle supplement that was committed to fight the signs of aging… ASTAXANTIN!

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid found mainly in salmon and wild trout, in shrimp, including krill, crustaceans, in the feathers of certain birds like flamingos and that gives them that pink color and in microalgae. Despite being a carotenoid, it does not convert to vitamin A (retinol), with, however, a strong antioxidant capacity, and an ability to prevent sunburn and help naturally in tanning, improves sports performance, prevents cataracts, eye fatigue and other eye diseases, prevents certain brain diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s and in the treatment of symptoms of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.

The famous dermatologist, Dr. Nicholas Perricone, in his 2006 bestseller “The Perricone Promise: Look Younger, Live Longer in Three Easy Steps” describes and recommends us to get the unique benefits of this natural carotenoid called Astaxanthin. And in his books “The Perricone Weight-Loss Diet: A Simple 3-Part Plan to Lose the Fat, the Wrinkles, and the Years”, 2007, and “Forever Young: The Science of Nutrigenomics for Glowing, Wrinkle-Free Skin and Radiant Health at Every Age”, 2011, never tires of praising the virtues of astaxanthin as the ideal natural solution to eliminate wrinkles, reduce hyper pigmentation, promote rejuvenation and skin elasticity, as well as the power of protecting the cell membrane, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. In his own words “astaxanthin gives you that beautiful, healthy glow”.

Another doctor, Dr. Robert Childs, referring to his childhood in Hawaii and his intolerance to sun exposure, claims that it disappeared from the moment he began supplementing his diet with astaxanthin. Since then he was able to expose himself to the midday sun for 4 hours without suffering any sunburn. He claims that astaxanthin completely changed his life and can make a living in the open air that until then was sealed. But the “miracle” of astaxanthin did not end there. He says it also eliminates the stiffness of joints and pain that affected him in the morning.

The benefits of astaxanthin were also abundantly underlined by Drs. Oz and Mercola. The group of researchers and pratitioners attribute to astaxanthin the following benefits:

1 – It is the most powerful carotenoid antioxidant with respect to the elimination of free radicals: it is 65 times more potent than vitamin C, 54 times more than betacarotenes and 14 times more than vitamin E. It is much more effective than other carotenoids in the elimination of toxic reactive oxygen. The harmful effects of sunlight and various organic materials are caused by this type of unstable oxygen. It becomes 11 times more potent than beta carotene and 550 times more potent than vitamin E in the elimination of this type of oxygen that damages our cellular structures;

2 – Can get through the blood-brain barrier (beta-carotenes and lycopene can’t) and this will bring important protection results in relation to the aging of the brain and the health of the eyes;

3 – It is soluble in lipids, so that it is incorporated into the cell membranes;

4 – It is a powerful absorber of ultraviolet rays;

5 – It improves the elasticity of the skin, combats wrinkles and reduces the aging of the skin, particularly one that arises from the effects of UV rays after 4 to 6 weeks of taking 4mg a day;

6 – Reduces the risk of skin cancer;

7 – Promotes a youthful appearance;

8 – Reduces DNA damage;

9 – It is a very potent natural anti-inflammatory that can counteract chronic inflammation and regulate C-reactive protein;

10 – Extraordinary effect on athletes in their joints, tendons, ligaments and cardiovascular health.

11 – Promotes HDL cholesterol, LDL reduction and prevents oxidation;

12 – Keeps triglycerides within normal range.

It is important to note that adverse reactions have never been seen in people who supplement their diet with astaxanthin.

The most common source of Astaxanthin in food is wild salmon, rare in the market today, making it practically impossible to ingest optimal amounts of astaxanthin through food.

So, today, we basically have to complement our intake and we must resort to an alternative source and excellence in its production for the preparation of supplements that is a microalga called Haematoccous pluvialis, which has revolutionized the world of nutrition and health in the last years.

Astaxanthin, also known as the king of carotenoids, is an intense red substance, produced inside the microalga when it has to protect itself from ultraviolet radiation from the intense sun. It is the survival mechanism of algae, which synthesizes it in a manner similar to that of skin cells in the human body that produce melanin when exposed to the sun to protect the body from excessive UV radiation.

In a study carried out by Savoure et al., published in 1995, the protective effects of astaxanthin, beta-carotene and retinol against ultraviolet radiation were tested in hair-deprived mice. Since the birth, mice were given different diets containing combinations of the three substances, each substance alone and a control diet without any of them. After 4 months, half of the mice in each group were exposed to UV radiation and 3 markers of skin damage were found. After irradiation, astaxanthin alone or in combination with retinol has been shown to be exceptionally effective in preventing photoaging according to the said markers.

Another study conducted by O’Connor, I., and O’Brien, N., published in 1998, demonstrated the superior protection of astaxanthin against the harmful oxidative effect caused by UV rays in the renal fibroblasts of mice, in relation to lutein and beta-carotenes. Astaxanthin was shown to have a protective effect 100 times higher than beta-carotene and 1,000 times higher than lutein in 2 different parameters read in the study.

In a study published in 2002 by Lyons, N., and O’Brien, N., the protective effect of astaxanthin was tested in vitro against human DNA alterations, induced by the deleterious effects of the radiation of UVs. Three different components of human skin have been tested and in all three cases astaxanthin has been shown to be effective in counteracting these harmful effects and avoiding DNA damage.

Arakane, in a study published in 2002, demonstrated the ability of astaxanthin to reduce the production of melanin by 40%, a substance that can be deposited excessively on the skin and can produce freckles, age spots and skin blemishes.

In another study, carried out by Yamashita and published in 2006, which included 49 healthy women, with an average age of 47 years old, who received 4mg of natural astaxanthin for 6 weeks, concluded that astaxanthin has made these women to be more beautiful:

  • Improved the elasticity and hydration of the skin and eliminated fine lines and wrinkles;
  • The skin has improved its overall texture and they appeared to be younger;

In conclusion, natural astaxanthin has very encouraging results from the point of view of the fight against aging. It is claimed as the most powerful antioxidant that, in addition to many other benefits, improves and protects the skin both in texture and in the elimination of wrinkles and unwanted marks, and can even cure certain skin problems, which substantially reduces the risk of skin cancer. Promotes a younger overall appearance. It can reduce the harmful effects of UV radiation on DNA and still function as a powerful natural anti-inflammatory and protective cardiovascular system with extraordinary interest for athletes.

For all of the above mention, ASTAXANTIN has my seal of PREMIUM SUPPLEMENT to be consumed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Arakane (2002), Superior Skin Protection via Astaxanthin. Carotenoid Sci., 5:21-24. Black (1998). Radical Interception by carotenoids and effects on UV carcinogenesis. Nutrition Cancer., 31(3):212-217. Camera et al., (2009). Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. Experimental Dermatology. Vol. 18 (3), Pages 222 – 231 . Koura(2005). Skin sensitization study of Astaxanthin in Guinea Pigs. Study No. 05035. New Drug Research Center Inc., Hokkaido Japan. Lee et al., (2003). Astaxanthin Inhibits Nitric Oxide Production and Inflammatory Gene Expression by Suppressing IκB Kinase-dependent NF-κB Activation. Molecules and Cells, 16(1):97-105. Lyons, N. & O’Brien, N. et al., (2002). Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. Journal of Derma. Sci., 30(1):73-84. Miki (1991). Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure & Appl. Chem., 63(1):141-146. Nishida et al. (2007). Carotenoid Science. Vol.11:16-20. O’Connor, l. & O’Brien, N. (1998). Modulation of UVA light induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts. J. Derma. Sci., 16(3):226-230. Perricone, N.: The Perricone Promise: Look Younger, Live Longer in Three Easy Steps, Warner Books, Boston, 2004. Perricone, N.: The Perricone Weight-Loss Diet: A Simple 3-Part Plan to Lose the Fat, the Wrinkles, and the Years, Ballantine Books, NY, 2007. Perricone, N.: Forever Young: The Science of Nutrigenomics for Glowing, Wrinkle-Free Skin and Radiant Health at Every Age, Atria Books, NY, 2010. Savoure et al., (1995). Vitamin A status and metabolism of cutaneous polyamines in the hairless mouse after UV irradiation: action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin. International J Vit. and Nutr. Res., 65(2):79-86. Seki et al., (2001). Effects of astaxanthin from haematococcus pluvialis on human skin. Fragrance J., 12:98-103. Tominaga et al., (2009a). Protective effects of astaxanthin against single oxgyen induced damage in human dermal fibroblasts in-vitro Food Style 21, 13(1):84-86. Tominaga et al., (2009b). Cosmetic effects of astaxanthin for all layers of skin. Food Style 21, 13(10):25-29. Yamashita (1995). Suppression of post UVB hyperpigmentation by topical astaxanthin from krill. Fragrance J., 14:180-185. Yamashita (2002). Cosmetic benefit of the supplement health food combined astaxanthin and tocotrienol on human skin. Food Style 21, 6(6):112-117. Yamashita(2006). The Effects of a Dietary Supplement Containing Astaxanthin on Skin Condition. Carotenoid Science, 10:91-95.


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